William R Kem

William R Kem, Ph.D.

Professor Emeritus

Department: MD-PHARMACOLOGY / THERAPEUTICS
Business Phone: (352) 318-9648
Business Email: wrkem@ufl.edu

Teaching Profile

Courses Taught
2011-2013,2015-2020
DEN6262 Prin of Pharmacology
2014,2016-2017
MDU4002 Introduction to Medical Science Seminar 2
2015-2016,2022-2023
GMS6009 Principles of Drug Action and Therapeutics
2013-2014
BMS6031 Foundations of Med
2006,2009-2011
MEL4002 Intro Med Sci Sem 2

Research Profile

Naturally occurring toxins possessing high affinity and selectivity for particular cell receptors are excellent molecular probes in biomedical research. The Kem Lab currently investigates marine toxins, which affect cholinergic receptors and ion channels. They have found that manipulation of the structures of these substances can eliminate toxicity without abolishing therapeutically useful effects. Two types of toxins, currently the major projects of this laboratory, are briefly described below.

As a graduate student, Kem discovered a toxin, anabaseine, which a marine worm uses to paralyze its prey. More recently, in a project with Drs. Meyer and Papke, they demonstrated that this bicyclic nicotinic alkaloid, when derivatized with an aromatic aldehyde, yields a compound that selectively stimulates alpha7 nicotinic receptors in the brain and enhances cognition. DMXBA (GTS-21) also displays neuroprotective activity and is much less toxic than nicotine. Phase I clinical tests of this compound were completed recently, and its utility for treating Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia will be assessed in the near future. Unlike the high affinity nicotinic receptors which drastically decrease in number as Alzheimer’s disease progresses, alpha 7 receptors are not greatly affected and therefore can continue to serve as a CNS drug target. They recently demonstrated that the primary metabolites of GTS-21 are even more potent alpha7 agonists than the parent compound and can serve as models for design of even more optimized drug candidates.

They are also investigating peptide toxins, which potently block sodium and potassium channels. For example, a 35-residue sea anemone toxin, ShK, was synthesized by solid-phase methods. The K channel binding domain of ShK, identified using an “alanine scan”, only contains 5 key amino acid sidechains. The most important are Arg 11, Lys 22 and Tyr 23. An ShK analog in which the Lys 22 sidechain is shortened possesses superior selectivity for the Kv 1.3 channel, which is uniquely expressed in the T-lymphocyte cell membrane. Blockade of this channel inhibits activation of T-lymphocytes by mitogens and antigens. Thus, ShK toxin analogs as well as peptide-mimetic molecules of ShK may become useful drugs for preventing immune rejection of transplanted organs and for treating autoimmune disorders. In addition to these two projects, they continue to isolate and characterize new toxins to serve as neurobiological probes and molecular models for drug design.

Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID)

0000-0001-8492-3969

Publications

2024
New Pyridyl and Dihydroisoquinoline Alkaloids Isolated from the Chevron Nemertean Amphiporus angulatus
Marine Drugs. 22(4) [DOI] 10.3390/md22040141. [PMID] 38667758.
2023
Discovery of the Nicotinic Receptor Toxin Anabaseine in a Polystiliferan Nemertean
Toxins. 15(1) [DOI] 10.3390/toxins15010046. [PMID] 36668866.
2023
Raymond Gibson (1938–2023): in memoriam
Zootaxa. 5311(4):596-599 [DOI] 10.11646/zootaxa.5311.4.7.
2022
A pilot study of transdermal nicotine effects on facial emotion responding in non-smoking healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia: Feasibility and effect size estimates.
Schizophrenia research. 250:89-91 [DOI] 10.1016/j.schres.2022.10.018. [PMID] 36372000.
2022
Interactions of Nereistoxin and Its Analogs with Vertebrate Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Molluscan ACh Binding Proteins.
Marine drugs. 20(1) [DOI] 10.3390/md20010049. [PMID] 35049904.
2022
The nonopioid cholinergic agonist GTS-21 mitigates morphine-induced aggravation of burn injury pain together with inhibition of spinal microglia activation in young rats.
British journal of anaesthesia. 129(6):959-969 [DOI] 10.1016/j.bja.2022.07.055. [PMID] 36243579.
2021
Nonopioid GTS-21 Mitigates Burn Injury Pain in Rats by Decreasing Spinal Cord Inflammatory Responses.
Anesthesia and analgesia. 132(1):240-252 [DOI] 10.1213/ANE.0000000000005274. [PMID] 33264122.
2021
Spleen is not required for therapeutic effects of 4OH-GTS-21, a selective α7 nAChR agonist, in the sub-acute phase of ischemic stroke in rats.
Brain research. 1751 [DOI] 10.1016/j.brainres.2020.147196. [PMID] 33159972.
2021
Systemic Administration of α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Ligands Does Not Improve Renal Injury or Behavior in Mice With Advanced Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
Frontiers in medicine. 8 [DOI] 10.3389/fmed.2021.642960. [PMID] 33928103.
2021
Therapeutic efficacy of α7 ligands after acute ischaemic stroke is linked to conductive states of α7 nicotinic ACh receptors.
British journal of pharmacology. 178(7):1684-1704 [DOI] 10.1111/bph.15392. [PMID] 33496352.
2020
A Methyl Scan of the Pyrrolidinium Ring of Nicotine Reveals Significant Differences in Its Interactions with α7 and α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.
Molecular pharmacology. 98(2):168-180 [DOI] 10.1124/mol.119.118786. [PMID] 32474444.
2020
A Pharmacological Comparison of Two Isomeric Nicotinic Receptor Agonists: The Marine Toxin Isoanatabine and the Tobacco Alkaloid Anatabine.
Marine drugs. 18(2) [DOI] 10.3390/md18020106. [PMID] 32053997.
2019
Investigation of the Possible Pharmacologically Active Forms of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist Anabaseine.
Marine drugs. 17(11) [DOI] 10.3390/md17110614. [PMID] 31671780.
2018
Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-specific agonist DMXBA (GTS-21) attenuates Aβ accumulation through suppression of neuronal γ-secretase activity and promotion of microglial amyloid-β phagocytosis and ameliorates cognitive impairment in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease.
Neurobiology of aging. 62:197-209 [DOI] 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.10.021. [PMID] 29175709.
2018
Brain PET Imaging of α7-nAChR with [18F]ASEM: Reproducibility, Occupancy, Receptor Density, and Changes in Schizophrenia.
The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology. 21(7):656-667 [DOI] 10.1093/ijnp/pyy021. [PMID] 29522184.
2018
Complete inhibition of fetal movement in the day 40 pregnant goat model by the piperidine alkaloid anabasine but not related alkaloids.
Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 144:61-67 [DOI] 10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.02.007. [PMID] 29452148.
2018
Effects of a nicotinic agonist on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale five-factor subscale model in schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia research. 195:568-569 [DOI] 10.1016/j.schres.2017.10.016. [PMID] 29050790.
2018
GTS-21 attenuates loss of body mass, muscle mass, and function in rats having systemic inflammation with and without disuse atrophy.
Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology. 470(11):1647-1657 [DOI] 10.1007/s00424-018-2180-6. [PMID] 30006848.
2018
Pharmacokinetic Limitations on Effects of an Alpha7-Nicotinic Receptor Agonist in Schizophrenia: Randomized Trial with an Extended-Release Formulation.
Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 43(3):583-589 [DOI] 10.1038/npp.2017.182. [PMID] 28825423.
2017
An ALPHA7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist (GTS-21) Promotes C2C12 Myonuclear Accretion in Association with Release of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Improves Survival in Burned Mice.
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). 48(2):227-235 [DOI] 10.1097/SHK.0000000000000849. [PMID] 28282360.
2017
Prevention of Burn-Induced Inflammatory Responses and Muscle Wasting by GTS-21, a Specific Agonist for α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). 47(1):61-69 [PMID] 27529131.
2016
Activation and Desensitization of Peripheral Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by Selected, Naturally-Occurring Pyridine Alkaloids.
Toxins. 8(7) [DOI] 10.3390/toxins8070204. [PMID] 27384586.
2016
Brief Report: Initial Trial of Alpha7-Nicotinic Receptor Stimulation in Two Adult Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 46(12):3812-3817 [PMID] 27565651.
2015
Non-competitive Inhibition of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by Ladybird Beetle Alkaloids.
Neurochemical research. 40(10):2078-86 [DOI] 10.1007/s11064-014-1466-0. [PMID] 25370792.
2015
Recombinant expression and predicted structure of parborlysin, a cytolytic protein from the Antarctic heteronemertine Parborlasia corrugatus.
Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 108:32-7 [DOI] 10.1016/j.toxicon.2015.09.044. [PMID] 26435341.
2014
Alpha7 Nicotinic Receptor Agonists as Pro-Cognitive Drugs for Cns Diseases
Neuropsychopharmacology. 39(1):S82-S83
2013
3-[(2,4-Dimethoxy)benzylidene]-anabaseine dihydrochloride protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced parkinsonian neurodegeneration through α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation in rats.
Journal of neuroscience research. 91(3):462-71 [DOI] 10.1002/jnr.23160. [PMID] 23239187.
2013
APS8, a polymeric alkylpyridinium salt blocks α7 nAChR and induces apoptosis in non-small cell lung carcinoma.
Marine drugs. 11(7):2574-94 [DOI] 10.3390/md11072574. [PMID] 23880932.
2013
Point-to-point ligand-receptor interactions across the subunit interface modulate the induction and stabilization of conformational states of alpha7 nAChR by benzylidene anabaseines.
Biochemical pharmacology. 85(6):817-28 [DOI] 10.1016/j.bcp.2013.01.010. [PMID] 23352650.
2012
Discovery of the Nicotinic Receptor Toxin Anabaseine in a Polystyliferan Nemertine
Toxicon. 60(2):125-126 [DOI] 10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.04.064.
2012
Racemic Synthesis of 2 `-Substituted Nicotine Analogs
Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry. 49(1):161-166 [DOI] 10.1002/jhet.841.
2011
Effects of an alpha 7-nicotinic agonist on default network activity in schizophrenia.
Biological psychiatry. 69(1):7-11 [DOI] 10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.07.004. [PMID] 20728875.
2011
Mechanisms of facilitation of synaptic glutamate release by nicotinic agonists in the nucleus of the solitary tract.
American journal of physiology. Cell physiology. 301(2):C347-61 [DOI] 10.1152/ajpcell.00473.2010. [PMID] 21613611.
2010
A computational study of the binding of 3-(arylidene) anabaseines to two major brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and to the acetylcholine binding protein.
European journal of medicinal chemistry. 45(6):2433-46 [DOI] 10.1016/j.ejmech.2010.02.027. [PMID] 20236734.
2010
A Convenient Racemic Synthesis of Two Isomeric Tetrahydropyridyl Alkaloids: Isoanatabine and Anatabine
Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry. 47:569-581 [DOI] 10.1002/jhet.359.
2010
A new phospholipase A2 isolated from the sea anemone Urticina crassicornis – its primary structure and phylogenetic classification.
The FEBS journal. 277(12):2641-53 [DOI] 10.1111/j.1742-464X.2010.07674.x. [PMID] 20553498.
2010
Actions of piperidine alkaloid teratogens at fetal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
Neurotoxicology and teratology. 32(3):383-90 [DOI] 10.1016/j.ntt.2010.01.011. [PMID] 20116429.
2010
Continuous administration of a selective alpha7 nicotinic partial agonist, DMXBA, improves sensory inhibition without causing tachyphylaxis or receptor upregulation in DBA/2 mice.
Brain research. 1352:140-6 [DOI] 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.06.063. [PMID] 20599427.
2010
Functional magnetic resonance imaging of effects of a nicotinic agonist in schizophrenia.
Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 35(4):938-42 [DOI] 10.1038/npp.2009.196. [PMID] 19956085.
2010
Neuroprotection by donepezil against glutamate excitotoxicity involves stimulation of alpha7 nicotinic receptors and internalization of NMDA receptors.
British journal of pharmacology. 161(1):127-39 [DOI] 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00894.x. [PMID] 20718745.
2010
The odyssey of marine pharmaceuticals: a current pipeline perspective.
Trends in pharmacological sciences. 31(6):255-65 [DOI] 10.1016/j.tips.2010.02.005. [PMID] 20363514.
2009
A new cytolytic protein from the sea anemone Urticina crassicornis that binds to cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-rich membranes.
Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 53(7-8):762-9 [DOI] 10.1016/j.toxicon.2009.02.007. [PMID] 19232528.
2009
A Phase 2 Trial of An Alpha 7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist in Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia Bulletin. 35
2009
Activation and desensitization of nicotinic alpha7-type acetylcholine receptors by benzylidene anabaseines and nicotine.
The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 329(2):791-807 [DOI] 10.1124/jpet.108.150151. [PMID] 19223664.
2009
Cnidarian toxins and venoms. Preface.
Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 54(8) [DOI] 10.1016/j.toxicon.2009.06.029. [PMID] 19576922.
2009
Interaction of benzylidene-anabaseine analogues with agonist and allosteric sites on muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
British journal of pharmacology. 157(2):320-30 [DOI] 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00156.x. [PMID] 19338581.
2009
Lsoanatabine, a Naturally Occurring Alpha 4 Beta 2 Nicotinic Receptor Agonist
Biochemical Pharmacology. 78(7):906-907 [DOI] 10.1016/j.bcp.2009.06.047.
2009
Marine toxins: an overview.
Progress in molecular and subcellular biology. 46:1-44 [DOI] 10.1007/978-3-540-87895-7_1. [PMID] 19184583.
2009
Positive modulation of alpha7 nAChR responses in rat hippocampal interneurons to full agonists and the alpha7-selective partial agonists, 4OH-GTS-21 and S 24795.
Neuropharmacology. 56(4):821-30 [PMID] 19705574.
2009
Structural determinants for interaction of partial agonists with acetylcholine binding protein and neuronal alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.
The EMBO journal. 28(19):3040-51 [DOI] 10.1038/emboj.2009.227. [PMID] 19696737.
2009
Synthesis and Spectroscopic Comparison of the Eight Methyl-2,3 `-Bipyridyls and Identification of a Hoplonemertine Alkaloid as 3-Methyl-2,3 `-Bipyridyl
Heterocycles. 79(4):1025-1041 [DOI] 10.3987/COM-08-S(D)80. [PMID] 23993497.
2009
The phylum Cnidaria and investigations of its toxins and venoms until 1990.
Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 54(8):1031-7 [DOI] 10.1016/j.toxicon.2009.06.031. [PMID] 19576920.
2008
Initial Phase 2 Trial of a Nicotinic Agonist in Schizophrenia
Biological Psychiatry. 63
2008
Initial phase 2 trial of a nicotinic agonist in schizophrenia.
The American journal of psychiatry. 165(8):1040-7 [DOI] 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07071135. [PMID] 18381905.
2008
Nicotine analog inhibition of nicotine self-administration in rats.
Psychopharmacology. 199(4):605-13 [DOI] 10.1007/s00213-008-1186-8. [PMID] 18536909.
2006
N-terminal domains in mouse and human 5-hydroxytryptamine3A receptors confer partial agonist and antagonist properties to benzylidene analogs of anabaseine.
The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 317(3):1276-84 [PMID] 16551836.
2006
Proof-of-concept trial of an alpha7 nicotinic agonist in schizophrenia.
Archives of general psychiatry. 63(6):630-8 [PMID] 16754836.
2006
Relative toxicities and neuromuscular nicotinic receptor agonistic potencies of anabasine enantiomers and anabaseine.
Neurotoxicology and teratology. 28(2):220-8 [PMID] 16488116.
2006
Spectroscopic analysis of benzylidene anabaseine complexes with acetylcholine binding proteins as models for ligand-nicotinic receptor interactions.
Biochemistry. 45(29):8894-902 [PMID] 16846232.
2004
Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor agonists: potential new candidates for the treatment of schizophrenia.
Psychopharmacology. 174(1):54-64 [PMID] 15205879.
2004
Hydroxy metabolites of the Alzheimer’s drug candidate 3-[(2,4-dimethoxy)benzylidene]-anabaseine dihydrochloride (GTS-21): their molecular properties, interactions with brain nicotinic receptors, and brain penetration.
Molecular pharmacology. 65(1):56-67 [PMID] 14722237.
2004
Nicotinic receptor inhibition by Tetraponera ant alkaloids.
Cellular and molecular neurobiology. 24(4):535-51 [PMID] 15233377.
2004
The structural basis for GTS-21 selectivity between human and rat nicotinic alpha7 receptors.
Molecular pharmacology. 66(1):14-24 [PMID] 15213292.
2003
DMXB, an alpha7 nicotinic agonist, normalizes auditory gating in isolation-reared rats.
Psychopharmacology. 169(3-4):332-9 [PMID] 12759805.
2003
Inhibition of barnacle larval settlement and crustacean toxicity of some hoplonemertine pyridyl alkaloids.
Biomolecular engineering. 20(4-6):355-61 [PMID] 12919820.
2003
Isolation and characterisation of a cytolytic protein from mucus secretions of the Antarctic heteronemertine Parborlasia corrugatus.
Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 41(4):483-91 [PMID] 12657318.
2003
Unique general anesthetic binding sites within distinct conformational states of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.
International review of neurobiology. 54:1-50 [PMID] 12785284.
2001
Benzylidene analogs of anabaseine display partial agonist and antagonist properties at the mouse 5-hydroxytryptamine(3A) receptor.
The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 299(3):1112-9 [PMID] 11714901.
2000
Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase prevents alpha 7 nicotinic receptor-mediated restoration of inhibitory auditory gating in rat hippocampus.
Brain research. 877(2):235-44 [PMID] 10986337.
2000
The brain alpha7 nicotinic receptor may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: studies with DMXBA (GTS-21).
Behavioural brain research. 113(1-2):169-81 [PMID] 10942043.
1999
GTS-21, a mixed nicotinic receptor agonist/antagonist, does not affect the nicotine cue.
Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior. 64(2):439-44 [PMID] 10515327.
1999
Role of disulfide bonds in the structure and potassium channel blocking activity of ShK toxin.
Biochemistry. 38(44):14549-58 [PMID] 10545177.
1999
Selective alpha 7 nicotinic receptor stimulation normalizes chronic cocaine-induced loss of hippocampal sensory inhibition in C3H mice.
Biological psychiatry. 46(10):1443-50 [PMID] 10578459.
1998
Pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of DMXBA (GTS-21), a compound enhancing cognition.
Biopharmaceutics & drug disposition. 19(3):147-51 [PMID] 9569996.
1998
Selective alpha7-nicotinic agonists normalize inhibition of auditory response in DBA mice.
Psychopharmacology. 136(4):320-7 [PMID] 9600576.
1998
ShK-Dap22, a potent Kv1.3-specific immunosuppressive polypeptide.
The Journal of biological chemistry. 273(49):32697-707 [PMID] 9830012.
1997
Alzheimer’s drug design based upon an invertebrate toxin (anabaseine) which is a potent nicotinic receptor agonist.
Invertebrate neuroscience : IN. 3(2-3):251-9 [PMID] 9783447.
1997
Anabaseine is a potent agonist on muscle and neuronal alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic receptors.
The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 283(3):979-92 [PMID] 9399967.
1997
Nicotinic agonist modulation of neurotransmitter levels in the rat frontoparietal cortex.
Japanese journal of pharmacology. 74(2):139-46 [PMID] 9243321.
1997
Structure of neurotoxin B-IV from the marine worm Cerebratulus lacteus: a helical hairpin cross-linked by disulphide bonding.
Journal of molecular biology. 268(5):886-902 [PMID] 9180379.
1996
An essential binding surface for ShK toxin interaction with rat brain potassium channels.
Biochemistry. 35(51):16407-11 [PMID] 8987971.
1996
Identification of three separate binding sites on SHK toxin, a potent inhibitor of voltage-dependent potassium channels in human T-lymphocytes and rat brain.
Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 219(3):696-701 [PMID] 8645244.
1996
Synthesis and structural characterisation of analogues of the potassium channel blocker charybdotoxin.
Biochimica et biophysica acta. 1292(1):31-8 [PMID] 8547346.
1995
Characterization of a series of anabaseine-derived compounds reveals that the 3-(4)-dimethylaminocinnamylidine derivative is a selective agonist at neuronal nicotinic alpha 7/125I-alpha-bungarotoxin receptor subtypes.
Molecular pharmacology. 47(1):164-71 [PMID] 7838125.
1995
Improved learning and memory in aged rats with chronic administration of the nicotinic receptor agonist GTS-21.
Brain research. 674(2):252-9 [PMID] 7796104.
1994
A nicotinic agonist (GTS-21), eyeblink classical conditioning, and nicotinic receptor binding in rabbit brain.
Brain research. 645(1-2):309-17 [PMID] 8062092.
1994
A novel nicotinic agonist facilitates induction of long-term potentiation in the rat hippocampus.
Neuroscience letters. 168(1-2):130-4 [PMID] 8028765.
1994
Limited proteolysis study of structure-function relationships in Sh I, a polypeptide neurotoxin from a sea anemone.
Biochimica et biophysica acta. 1207(1):93-101 [PMID] 7913833.
1994
Nicotinic cholinergic system involvement in eyeblink classical conditioning in rabbits.
Behavioral neuroscience. 108(3):486-93 [PMID] 7917042.
1994
Structure and membrane actions of a marine worm protein cytolysin, Cerebratulus toxin A-III.
Toxicology. 87(1-3):189-203 [PMID] 8160185.
1994
Synthesis of the cardiac inotropic polypeptide anthopleurin-A.
International journal of peptide and protein research. 43(5):463-70 [PMID] 8070970.
1992
1H-NMR study of neurotoxin B-IV from the marine worm Cerebratulus lacteus. Solution properties, sequence-specific resonance assignments, secondary structure and global fold.
European journal of biochemistry. 210(1):231-40 [PMID] 1332861.
1992
Actions of three structurally distinct sea anemone toxins on crustacean and insect sodium channels.
Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 30(11):1365-81 [PMID] 1336629.
1992
Synthesis and characterization of a disulfide bond isomer of omega-conotoxin GVIA.
Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 30(7):755-64 [PMID] 1509493.
1990
Chemical synthesis of a neurotoxic polypeptide from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus.
International journal of peptide and protein research. 36(4):335-43 [PMID] 1981881.
1990
Circular dichroism and laser Raman spectroscopic analysis of the secondary structure of Cerebratulus lacteus toxin B-IV.
Journal of protein chemistry. 9(4):433-43 [PMID] 2275754.
1990
Quantitative structure-activity relationships for sea anemone polypeptide toxins.
International journal of peptide and protein research. 36(5):440-4 [PMID] 1980491.
1990
Reduction potentials of imine-substituted, biologically active pyridines: possible relation to activity.
Free radical research communications. 10(3):185-92 [PMID] 2397922.
1990
Solution structure of neurotoxin I from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. A nuclear magnetic resonance, distance geometry, and restrained molecular dynamics study.
The Journal of biological chemistry. 265(22):13016-28 [PMID] 1973932.
1990
Synthesis and biological activity of six monosubstituted analogs of a sea anemone polypeptide neurotoxin.
Peptide research. 3(5):228-32 [PMID] 2134066.
1989
1H NMR study of the solution properties of the polypeptide neurotoxin I from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus.
Biochemistry. 28(4):1820-6 [PMID] 2566323.
1989
Binding of a radiolabeled sea anemone cytolysin to erythrocyte membranes.
Biochimica et biophysica acta. 987(2):181-6 [PMID] 2574996.
1989
Interfacial activity of an ion channel-generating protein cytolysin from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus.
Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 27(4):465-71 [PMID] 2567077.
1989
Isolation, characterization, and amino acid sequence of a polypeptide neurotoxin occurring in the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus.
Biochemistry. 28(8):3483-9 [PMID] 2568126.
1989
Sequence-specific 1H NMR assignments and secondary structure in the sea anemone polypeptide Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin I.
Biochemistry. 28(4):1826-34 [PMID] 2566324.
1988
Separation and characterization of four different amino acid sequence variants of a sea anemone (Stichodactyla helianthus) protein cytolysin.
Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 26(11):997-1008 [PMID] 2907688.
1987
Effects of nucleus basalis lesions on the muscarinic and nicotinic modulation of [3H]acetylcholine release in the rat cerebral cortex.
Journal of neurochemistry. 49(6):1758-62 [PMID] 3681294.
1983
Cobra polypeptide cytotoxin I and marine worm polypeptide cytotoxin A-IV are potent and selective inhibitors of phospholipid-sensitive Ca2+-dependent protein kinase.
FEBS letters. 153(1):183-6 [PMID] 6298006.
1983
Primary structure of Stoichactis helianthus cytolysin III.
The Journal of biological chemistry. 258(9):5574-81 [PMID] 6133872.
1981
Structure and action of heteronemertine polypeptide toxins. Amino acid sequence of Cerebratulus lacteus toxin B-II and revised structure of toxin B-IV.
The Journal of biological chemistry. 256(17):9063-7 [PMID] 7263698.
1980
Structure and action of heteronemertine polypeptide toxins. Primary structure of Cerebratulus lacteus toxin A-III.
The Journal of biological chemistry. 255(17):8266-72 [PMID] 6997292.
1980
Structure and action of heteronemertine polypeptide toxins: inactivation of Cerebratulus lacteus toxin B-IV by tyrosine nitration.
Archives of biochemistry and biophysics. 203(2):816-21 [PMID] 7458356.
1978
Cardiac effects of toxin A-III from the heteronemertine worm Cerebratulus lacteus (Leidy).
Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 16(4):343-9 [PMID] 684765.
1978
Purification and characterization of the cytotoxic Cerebratulus A toxins.
The Journal of biological chemistry. 253(16):5752-7 [PMID] 670226.
1977
Structure and action of heteronemertine polypeptide toxins: disulfide bonds of Cerebratulus lacteus toxin B-IV.
The Journal of biological chemistry. 252(10):3328-31 [PMID] 863886.
1976
Hoplonemertine worms — a new source of pyridine neurotoxins.
Experientia. 32(6):684-6 [PMID] 181266.
1976
Purification and characterization of a new family of polypeptide neurotoxins from the heteronemertine Cerebratulus lacteus (Leidy).
The Journal of biological chemistry. 251(14):4184-92 [PMID] 932028.
1976
Structure and action of heteronemertine polypeptide toxins. Primary structure of Cerebratulus lacteus toxin B-IV.
The Journal of biological chemistry. 251(19):6025-9 [PMID] 972152.
1971
A study of the occurrence of anabaseine in Paranemertes and other nemertines.
Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 9(1):23-32 [PMID] 5539373.
1971
Isolation and structure of a hoplonemertine toxin.
Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 9(1):15-22 [PMID] 5539371.
1963
ACTIVITY RHYTHM IN PEROMYSCUS: ITS INFLUENCE ON RATES OF RECOVERY FROM NEMBUTAL.
Science (New York, N.Y.). 142(3600):1682-3 [PMID] 14075704.

Grants

Sep 2020 – Sep 2023
Drug Discovery for Treating the Inhaled Nicotine-Induced Mucociliary Clearance Defect in COPD
Role: Principal Investigator
Funding: UNIV OF ALABAMA BIRMINGHAM
Apr 2019 – Mar 2023
A translational approach to understand hippocampal neural circuitry regulating impulsive aggression
Role: Principal Investigator
Funding: VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER via NATL INST OF HLTH NIMH
Oct 2015 – Dec 2016
POTENTIAL DRUG LEADS FOR NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES
Role: Principal Investigator
Funding: UNIVERSITY OF ICELAND
Aug 2015 – Jul 2018
Imaging of alpha7-nAChR in healthy controls
Role: Principal Investigator
Funding: JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY via NATL INST OF HLTH NIMH
Aug 2015 – Jul 2018
Effects of GTS-21 on smoking behavior and neurocognitive function
Role: Project Manager
Funding: NATL INST OF HLTH NIDA
Jul 2015 – Jun 2021
Nicotinic Agonist Effects on BMI and Neuronal Response in Overweight/Obese Adults
Role: Principal Investigator
Funding: UNIV OF COLORADO DENVER & ANSCHUTZ MED via NATL INST OF HLTH NIDDK
Sep 2013 – Feb 2017
Manufacture and Analyze 3-2, 4 (dimethoxy) benzylidene-anabaseine and its 2 and 4 hydroxy metabolite for human Drug Study
Role: Principal Investigator
Funding: US DEPT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS

Contact Details

Phones:
Business:
(352) 318-9648
Emails:
Business:
wrkem@ufl.edu
Addresses:
Business Mailing:
PO Box 100267
GAINESVILLE FL 32610
Business Street:
1200 NEWELL DR
GAINESVILLE FL 32610